The New Testament
The evidence continues into the New Testament, where the unity of God is endorsed by Jesus.
Towards the end of the ministry of Jesus, a scribe asked him what was the greatest of the commandments of the Law. Jesus’ answer was:
"The most important is, ‘Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one. And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all your strength.’" (Mark 12:29,30)
This, of course, is a repeat of the most fundamental statement on the unity of God. When asked what was the most important element of the Scripture, Jesus replied that this was the unity of God.
The scribe then endorses this with an even stronger statement:
"And the scribe said to him, 'You are right, Teacher. You have truly said that he is one, and there is no other besides him.'"
This also shows a picture of a God who is one person.
Jesus clearly supports this view; his next statement to the scribe is:
"And when Jesus saw that he answered wisely, he said to him, 'You are not far from the kingdom of God.' And after that no one dared to ask him any more questions." (Mark 12:34)
Here Jesus endorses a view that the unity of God is the greatest point in the message of God as revealed in the Scriptures. After discussing the unity of God with a Jewish scholar Jesus agrees with the Jewish picture of the unity of God.
This picture appears again in the Gospel of John. In the course of his travels Jesus discussed the Gospel with a Samaritan woman. Towards the end of this discussion Jesus says:
"You worship what you do not know; we worship what we know, for salvation is from the Jews." (John 4:22) This is an extremely clear statement. Jesus tells us that the Jews know the God whom they worship and he includes himself with the Jews who worship God. It is quite clear that Jews have always followed the Old Testament view of God - one God who is one person. Jesus tells the woman that in this the Jews are completely correct.
Shortly before the crucifixion Jesus prayed to God; the prayer is recorded for us in John’s Gospel:
"When Jesus had spoken these words, he lifted up his eyes to heaven, and said, 'Father, the hour has come; glorify your Son that the Son may glorify you, since you have given him authority over all flesh, to give eternal life to all whom you have given him. And this is eternal life, that they know you the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent.'" (John 17:13)
Jesus specifically addresses his prayer to his Father in heaven. This prayer includes the comment that the Father of Jesus is the “only true God”.
The Bible is very clear. There is one God, who is called the Father. This God is the Father of Jesus Christ.
The Letters of the New Testament also contain a considerable number of passages which tell us that there is one God, and that that one God is the Father – not the Son of God. Here are three examples
"Yet for us there is one God, the Father, from whom are all things and for whom we exist, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things and through whom we exist." (1 Corinthians 8:6)
"one God and Father of all, who is over all and through all and in all." (Ephesians 4:6) "For there is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus," (1 Timothy 2:5)